Favor reciprocation theory in education: New corruption typology

Abstract

Embedded in a systemic and chronic process, corruption in education is a pervasive element that exacerbates developing countries’ efforts to educate their citizens. Understanding the cumulative impact rests upon exposing key features of educational corruption and bringing to light the varied forms in which corruption emerges within institutions of higher education. Classifying educational corruption may be elusive in the developing settings due to the acceptability and prevalence of the phenomenon; yet, it is imperative that more attention is focused on this area. Based on the empirical research conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s higher education, this paper broadens current understanding of typologies of educational corruption by incorporating the novel forms emerging in the post-war and developing environment of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In particular, the study surprisingly finds that elites gravitate towards and benefit from non-pecuniary corruption while the poor tend to bribe. The study places the onus on the lack of accountability of elite power maneuvers and aims to aid in creating further awareness to combat corruption.

Keywords

Development; Corruption; Non-pecuniary; Favor reciprocation; Higher education; Corruption typology

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